Programming language: Swift
License: MIT License
Tags: Network    
Latest version: v1.1.2

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Dratini is a neat network abstraction layer.
If you are looking for a solution to make your network layer neat, Dratini is your choice.
Dratini uses protocols to define network request, parameters and response, which makes your network layer more readable and testable.


  • Protocol base design.
  • Auto serialization for parameters.
  • Response is observable by request id or response type.
  • UI non-blocking since request and response handling happen in background thread.
  • Request and response are interceptable by using delegate.
  • RxSwift extension is available: RxDratini


  • Xcode 8.0+
  • Swift 3.0


  • Ditto: it's used for serializing Swift object into JSON compatible dictionary, mainly used for impelmenting DefaultQueryString, URLEncodedBodyData and JSONBodyData.



pod 'Dratini'


github "kevin0571/Dratini"

Swift Package Manager

dependencies: [
    .Package(url: "https://github.com/kevin0571/Dratini.git", majorVersion: 1)


Here are some basic steps to send out a request and observe for its response.

Setup RequestQueue:

let requestQueue = RequestQueue(baseURL: URL(string: "http://example.com"))
// Delegate and configuration are not required.
// Set the delegate(RequestQueueDelegate) if you wish to get callbacks for each step.
// RequestQueueConfiguration.default is used if configuration is not specified.

Keep a shared RequestQueue is recommended:

extension RequestQueue {
    static let shared = RequestQueue(baseURL: URL(string: "http://example.com"))

Describe your request, parameters and response:

struct LogInRequest: Request {
    typealias ParametersType = LogInParameters
    typealias ResponseType = LogInResponse

    var parameters: LogInParameters

    func path() -> String {
        return "/login"

    func method() -> HTTPMethod {
        return .post

// There are several built-in Parameters types:
// - DefaultQueryString for query string, it will mostly be used in GET request.
// - URLEncodedBodyData for URL encoded body data.
// - JSONBodyData for JSON format body data.
// - MultipartFormData for multipart form data, it will mostly be used for uploading file.
// In order to allow you to keep the naming convention of different platforms,
// property name of DefaultQueryString, URLEncodedBodyData and JSONBodyData will be mapped to other naming convention.
// By default property will be converted to lowercase name separated by underscore,
// e.g. accessToken will be converted to access_token. 
// You can set the mapping by overriding "serializableMapping" function.
// See more details in Ditto project's README.
struct LogInParameters: URLEncodedBodyData {
    let username: String
    let password: String

struct LogInResponse: Response {
    let username: String
    let name: String
    init?(data: ResponseData, response: URLResponse) {
        // - Use data.data to access raw response data.
        // - Use data.jsonObject to access JSON format dictionary.
        // - Use data.jsonArray to access JSON format array.
        // - Use data.string to access UTF8 string.
        guard let username = data.jsonObject["username"] as? String,
            let name = data.jsonObject["name"] as? String else {
            return nil
        self.username = username
        self.name = name

Send the request and observe for response:

let request = LogInRequest(parameters: LogInParameters(username: username,
                                                       password: password))
let requestID = RequestQueue.shared.add(request)
// Observe by using requestID.
// The observer will be removed by RequestQueue after the request is finished.
requestQueue.addObserver(for: requestID) { (result: Result<LogInResponse>) in
    guard let response = result.response else {
        // Show error message
    // Update UI by using response.username and response.name
// Observe a specific response type. 
// The observer is owned by an owner. The owner is held weakly by RequestQueue,
// thus the observer will be removed if owner is released.
requestQueue.addObserver(ownedBy: self) { [weak self] (result: Result<LogInResponse>) in
    // ...
// NOTE: observer callback is called in main thread.

Do More with Dratini

Sometimes you need to do more with Dratini, here are some features you might need, e.g. upload file, intercept different states of request and response.

Upload file:

let data = MultipartFormData()
// Append file with fileURL
data.append(fileURL: fileURL, withName: name, fileName: fileName, mimeType: "application/x-plist")  
// Append raw file data
data.append(data: fileData, withName: name, fileName: fileName, mimeType: "application/x-plist")

// Assume we've created UploadFileRequest
let request = UploadFileRequest(parameters: data)
// Send out request
// ...

Intercept states of request:

// Conform to Request with RequestDelegate to get callbacks of different states.
struct LogInRequest: Request, RequestDelegate {
    // ...

    func requestWillSend(_ urlRequest: inout URLRequest) {
        // Called before request is sent out.
        // You are able to modify the URLRequest: update HTTP header for example.

    func requestDidSend(_ urlRequest: URLRequest) {
        // Called after request is sent out.

    func request(_ urlRequest: URLRequest, didFailWith error: DRError) {
        // Called when request is failed to be sent out or response is failed to be created.

Validate response before creating response and intercept states of response:

struct LogInResponse: Response, ResponseDelegate {
    // ...

    // Validate the response before it's created.
    static func validate(_ response: URLResponse) -> Bool {
        guard let httpResponse = response as? HTTPURLResponse else {
            return true
        return httpResponse.statusCode >= 200 &&
            httpResponse.statusCode < 300 &&
            httpResponse.allHeaderFields["Token"] != nil

    // Called after response is created.
    func responseDidReceive(_ response: URLResponse) {
        guard let httpResponse = response as? HTTPURLResponse,
            let token = httpResponse.allHeaderFields["Token"] else {
            return nil
        // Save your token

Having common logic for all requests and response are sometimes necessary, RequestQueueDelegate is here for you:

class MyRequestQueueDelegate: RequestQueueDelegate {
    public func requestQueue(_ requestQueue: RequestQueue, willSend request: inout URLRequest) {
        // Called before each request is sent out.

    public func requestQueue(_ requestQueue: RequestQueue, didSend request: URLRequest) {
        // Called after each request is sent out.

    public func requestQueue(_ requestQueue: RequestQueue, didFailWith request: URLRequest, error: DRError) {
        // Called when request is failed to be sent out or response is failed to be created.

    public func requestQueue(_ requestQueue: RequestQueue, didReceive response: URLResponse) {
        // Called after response is created.

extension RequestQueue {
    // Set delegate when creating RequestQueue.
    static let shared = RequestQueue(delegate: MyRequestQueueDelegate(), baseURL: URL(string: "http://example.com")!)

Check if request is finished and cancel it:

let isFinished = RequestQueue.shared.isFinished(requestID)


When you don't really need a Parameters or Response, you can use:



If you wish to customize query string or body data encoding, you can implement your own by adpoting QueryString or BodyData protocol.

struct MyBodyData: BodyData {
    let string: String

    var contentType: String {
        return "my-content-type"

    func encode() throws -> Data {
        return string.data(using: .utf8)!

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the Dratini README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.