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Programming language: Swift
Tags: Testing     iOS     Swift    
Latest version: v0.16.0

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README

// Mocking
let bird = mock(Bird.self)

// Stubbing
given(bird.getName()).willReturn("Ryan")

// Verification
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()

What is Mockingbird?

Mockingbird is a Swift mocking framework that lets you throw away your hand-written mocks and write clean, readable tests.

  • Expansive coverage of Swift language features
    • Mock classes and protocols in a single line of code
    • Support for generics, inheritance, static members, nested classes, type aliasing, etc.
  • Seamless integration with Xcode projects
    • Automatic discovery of source and dependency files
    • Handling of external types from third-party libraries
  • Convenient testing API
    • Clear stubbing and verification error messages
    • Support for asynchronous code, in order verification, default return value stubbing, etc.

Under the Hood

Mockingbird consists of two main components: the generator and the testing framework. Before each test bundle compilation, the generator mocks types by implementing protocols and subclassing classes. The testing framework then hooks into the generated code and provides APIs for mocking, stubbing, and verification.

A key design consideration was performance. Mockingbird runs an optimized parser built on SwiftSyntax and SourceKit that is ~30-40x faster than existing frameworks and supports a broad range of complex Swift features like generics and type qualification.

A Simple Example

Let’s say we wanted to test a Person class with a function that takes in a Bird.

protocol Bird {
  var canFly: Bool { get }
  func fly()
}

class Person {
  func release(_ bird: Bird) {
    guard bird.canFly else { return }
    bird.fly()
  }
}

With Mockingbird, it’s easy to stub return values and verify that mocked methods were called.

// Given a bird that can fly
let bird = mock(Bird.self)
given(bird.getCanFly()).willReturn(true)

// When a person releases the bird
Person().release(bird)

// Then the bird flies away
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()

Installation

Select your preferred dependency manager below for installation instructions and example projects.

CocoaPods

Add the framework to a test target in your Podfile, making sure to include the use_frameworks! option.

target 'MyAppTests' do
  use_frameworks!
  pod 'MockingbirdFramework', '~> 0.16'
end

Initialize the pod and install the CLI.

$ pod install
$ (cd Pods/MockingbirdFramework && make install-prebuilt)

Then download the starter supporting source files.

$ mockingbird download starter-pack

Finally, configure a test target to generate mocks for each listed source module. For advanced usages, see the available installer options and how to set up targets manually.

$ mockingbird install --target MyAppTests --sources MyApp MyLibrary1 MyLibrary2

Optional but recommended:

Have questions or issues?

Carthage

Add the framework to your Cartfile.

github "birdrides/mockingbird" ~> 0.16

Build the framework with Carthage, link it to your test target, and install the CLI.

$ carthage update
$ (cd Carthage/Checkouts/mockingbird && make install-prebuilt)

Then download the starter supporting source files.

$ mockingbird download starter-pack

Finally, configure a test target to generate mocks for each listed source module. For advanced usages, see the available installer options and how to set up targets manually.

$ mockingbird install --target MyAppTests --sources MyApp MyLibrary1 MyLibrary2

Optional but recommended:

Have questions or issues?

Swift Package Manager

Add the framework as a package dependency and link it to your test target.

  1. File > Swift Packages > Add Package Dependency…
  2. Enter https://github.com/birdrides/mockingbird for the repository URL and click Next
  3. Choose “Up to Next Minor” for the version and click Next
  4. Select your test target under “Add to Target” and click Finish

Click here if you are using a Package.swift manifest file instead.

Add Mockingbird to your package and test target dependencies.

let package = Package(
  name: "MyPackage",
  dependencies: [
    // Add the line below
    .package(name: "Mockingbird", url: "https://github.com/birdrides/mockingbird.git", .upToNextMinor(from: "0.16.0")),
  ],
  targets: [
    .testTarget(
      name: "MyPackageTests",
      dependencies: [
        "Mockingbird", // Add this line
      ]
    ),
  ]
)

In your project directory, initialize the package dependency and install the CLI.

$ xcodebuild -resolvePackageDependencies
$ DERIVED_DATA=$(xcodebuild -showBuildSettings | pcregrep -o1 'OBJROOT = (/.*)/Build')
$ (cd "${DERIVED_DATA}/SourcePackages/checkouts/mockingbird" && make install-prebuilt)

Then download the starter supporting source files.

$ mockingbird download starter-pack

Finally, configure a test target to generate mocks for each listed source module. For advanced usages, see the available installer options and how to set up targets manually.

$ mockingbird install --target MyPackageTests --sources MyPackage MyLibrary1 MyLibrary2

Optional but recommended:

Have questions or issues?

Usage

Mockingbird provides a comprehensive API reference generated with SwiftDoc.

  1. Mocking
  2. Stubbing
  3. Verification
  4. Argument Matching
  5. Miscellaneous

1. Mocking

Initialized mocks can be passed in place of the original type. Protocol mocks do not require explicit initialization while class mocks should be created using initialize(…).

protocol Bird {
  init(name: String)
}
class Tree {
  init(with bird: Bird) {}
}

let bird = mock(Bird.self)  // Protocol mock
let tree = mock(Tree.self).initialize(with: bird)  // Class mock

Generated mock types are suffixed with Mock and should not be coerced into their supertype.

let bird: BirdMock = mock(Bird.self)  // The concrete type is `BirdMock`
let inferredBird = mock(Bird.self)    // Type inference also works
let coerced: Bird = mock(Bird.self)   // Avoid upcasting mocks

Reset Mocks

Reset mocks and clear specific configurations during test runs.

reset(bird)                    // Reset everything
clearStubs(on: bird)           // Only remove stubs
clearDefaultValues(on: bird)   // Only remove default values
clearInvocations(on: bird)     // Only remove recorded invocations

2. Stubbing

Stubbing allows you to define custom behavior for mocks to perform.

given(bird.canChirp()).willReturn(true)
given(bird.canChirp()).willThrow(BirdError())
given(bird.canChirp(volume: any())).will { volume in
  return volume < 42
}

This is equivalent to the shorthand syntax using the stubbing operator ~>.

given(bird.canChirp()) ~> true
given(bird.canChirp()) ~> { throw BirdError() }
given(bird.canChirp(volume: any())) ~> { volume in
  return volume < 42
}

Stub Methods with Parameters

Match argument values to stub methods with parameters. Stubs added later have a higher precedence, so add stubs with specific matchers last.

given(bird.canChirp(volume: any())).willReturn(true)     // Any volume
given(bird.canChirp(volume: notNil())).willReturn(true)  // Any non-nil volume
given(bird.canChirp(volume: 10)).willReturn(true)        // Volume = 10

Stub Properties

Stub properties with their getter and setter methods.

given(bird.getName()).willReturn("Ryan")
given(bird.setName(any())).will { print($0) }

Getters can be stubbed to automatically save and return values.

given(bird.getName()).willReturn(lastSetValue(initial: ""))
print(bird.name)  // Prints ""
bird.name = "Ryan"
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Ryan"

Relaxed Stubs with Default Values

Mocks are strict by default, meaning that calls to unstubbed methods will trigger a test failure. Methods returning Void do not need to be stubbed in strict mode.

let bird = mock(Bird.self)
print(bird.name)  // Fails because `bird.getName()` is not stubbed
bird.fly()        // Okay because `fly()` has a `Void` return type

To return default values for unstubbed methods, use a ValueProvider with the initialized mock. Mockingbird provides preset value providers which are guaranteed to be backwards compatible, such as .standardProvider.

let bird = mock(Bird.self)
bird.useDefaultValues(from: .standardProvider)
print(bird.name)  // Prints ""

You can create custom value providers by registering values for types.

var valueProvider = ValueProvider()
valueProvider.register("Ryan", for: String.self)
bird.useDefaultValues(from: valueProvider)
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Ryan"

Values from concrete stubs always have a higher precedence than default values.

given(bird.getName()).willReturn("Ryan")
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Ryan"

bird.useDefaultValues(from: .standardProvider)
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Ryan"

Provide wildcard instances for generic types by conforming the base type to Providable and registering the type.

extension Array: Providable {
  public static func createInstance() -> Self? {
    return Array()
  }
}

// Provide an empty array for all specialized `Array` types
valueProvider.registerType(Array<Any>.self)

Stub a Sequence of Values

Methods that return a different value each time can be stubbed with a sequence of values. The last value will be used for all subsequent invocations.

given(bird.getName()).willReturn(sequence(of: "Ryan", "Sterling"))
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Ryan"
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Sterling"
print(bird.name)  // Prints "Sterling"

It’s also possible to stub a sequence of arbitrary behaviors.

given(bird.getName())
  .willReturn("Ryan")
  .willReturn("Sterling")
  .will { return Bool.random() ? "Ryan" : "Sterling" }

3. Verification

Verification lets you assert that a mock received a particular invocation during its lifetime.

verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()

Verifying doesn’t remove recorded invocations, so it’s safe to call verify multiple times.

verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()  // If this succeeds...
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()  // ...this also succeeds

Verify Methods with Parameters

Match argument values to verify methods with parameters.

verify(bird.canChirp(volume: any())).wasCalled()     // Called with any volume
verify(bird.canChirp(volume: notNil())).wasCalled()  // Called with any non-nil volume
verify(bird.canChirp(volume: 10)).wasCalled()        // Called with volume = 10

Verify Properties

Verify property invocations using their getter and setter methods.

verify(bird.getName()).wasCalled()
verify(bird.setName(any())).wasCalled()

Verify the Number of Invocations

It’s possible to verify that an invocation was called a specific number of times with a count matcher.

verify(bird.fly()).wasNeverCalled()            // n = 0
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled(exactly(10))      // n = 10
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled(atLeast(10))      // n ≥ 10
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled(atMost(10))       // n ≤ 10
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled(between(5...10))  // 5 ≤ n ≤ 10

Count matchers also support chaining and negation using logical operators.

verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled(not(exactly(10)))           // n ≠ 10
verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled(exactly(10).or(atMost(5)))  // n = 10 || n ≤ 5

Argument Capturing

An argument captor extracts received argument values which can be used in other parts of the test.

let bird = mock(Bird.self)
bird.name = "Ryan"

let nameCaptor = ArgumentCaptor<String>()
verify(bird.setName(nameCaptor.matcher)).wasCalled()

print(nameCaptor.value)  // Prints "Ryan"

In Order Verification

Enforce the relative order of invocations with an inOrder verification block.

// Verify that `fly` was called before `chirp`
inOrder {
  verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()
  verify(bird.chirp()).wasCalled()
}

Pass options to inOrder verification blocks for stricter checks with additional invariants.

inOrder(with: .noInvocationsAfter) {
  verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()
  verify(bird.chirp()).wasCalled()
}

Asynchronous Verification

Mocked methods that are invoked asynchronously can be verified using an eventually block which returns an XCTestExpectation.

DispatchQueue.main.async {
  Tree(with: bird).shake()
}

let expectation =
  eventually {
    verify(bird.fly()).wasCalled()
    verify(bird.chirp()).wasCalled()
  }

wait(for: [expectation], timeout: 1.0)

Verify Methods Overloaded by Return Type

Specify the expected return type to disambiguate overloaded methods.

protocol Bird {
  func getMessage<T>() -> T    // Overloaded generically
  func getMessage() -> String  // Overloaded explicitly
  func getMessage() -> Data
}

verify(bird.getMessage()).returning(String.self).wasCalled()

4. Argument Matching

Argument matching allows you to stub or verify specific invocations of parameterized methods.

Match Exact Values

Value types that explicitly conform to Equatable work out of the box. Note that structs able to synthesize Equatable conformance must still explicitly declare conformance.

struct Fruit: Equatable {
  let size: Int
}

verify(bird.eat(Fruit(size: 42))).wasCalled()
verify(bird.setName("Ryan")).wasCalled()

Class instances can be safely compared by reference.

class Tree {
  init(with bird: Bird) {
    bird.home = self
  }
}

let tree = Tree(with: bird)
verify(bird.setHome(tree)).wasCalled()

Match Wildcard Values and Non-Equatable Types

Argument matchers allow for wildcard and custom matching of arguments that don’t conform to Equatable.

any()                    // Matches any value
any(of: 1, 2, 3)         // Matches any value in {1, 2, 3}
any(where: { $0 > 42 })  // Matches any number greater than 42
notNil()                 // Matches any non-nil value

For methods overloaded by parameter type (such as with generics), using a matcher may cause ambiguity for the compiler. You can help the compiler by specifying an explicit type in the matcher.

any(Int.self)
any(Int.self, of: 1, 2, 3)
any(Int.self, where: { $0 > 42 })
notNil(String?.self)

You can also match elements or keys within collection types.

any(containing: 1, 2, 3)  // Matches any collection with values {1, 2, 3}
any(keys: "a", "b", "c")  // Matches any dictionary with keys {"a", "b", "c"}
any(count: atMost(42))    // Matches any collection with at most 42 elements
notEmpty()                // Matches any non-empty collection

Match Floating Point Values

Mathematical operations on floating point numbers can cause loss of precision. Fuzzily match floating point arguments instead of using exact values to increase the robustness of tests.

around(10.0, tolerance: 0.01)

5. Miscellaneous

Excluding Files

You can exclude unwanted or problematic sources from being mocked by adding a .mockingbird-ignore file. Mockingbird follows the same pattern format as .gitignore and scopes ignore files to their enclosing directory.

Using Supporting Source Files

Supporting source files are used by the generator to resolve inherited types defined outside of your project. Although Mockingbird provides a preset “starter pack” for basic compatibility with common system frameworks, you will occasionally need to add your own definitions for third-party library types. Please see Supporting Source Files for more information.

Thunk Pruning

To improve compilation times for large projects, Mockingbird only generates mocking code (known as thunks) for types used in tests. Unused types can either produce “thunk stubs” or no code at all depending on the pruning level specified.

Level Description
disable Always generate full thunks regardless of usage in tests.
stub Generate partial definitions filled with fatalError.
omit Don’t generate any definitions for unused types.

Usage is determined by statically analyzing test target sources for calls to mock(SomeType.self), which may not work out of the box for projects that indirectly synthesize types such as through Objective-C based dependency injection.

  • Option 1: Explicitly reference each indirectly synthesized type in your tests, e.g. _ = mock(SomeType.self). References can be placed anywhere in the test target sources, such as in the setUp method of a test case or in a single file.
  • Option 2: Disable pruning entirely by setting the prune level with --prunelevel disable. Note that this may increase compilation times for large projects.

Mockingbird CLI

Generate

Generate mocks for a set of targets in a project.

mockingbird generate

Option Default Value Description
--targets (required) List of target names to generate mocks for.
--project [(inferred)](#--project) Path to an .xcodeproj file or a JSON project description.
--srcroot [(inferred)](#--srcroot) The directory containing your project’s source files.
--outputs [(inferred)](#--outputs) List of mock output file paths for each target.
--support [(inferred)](#--support) The directory containing supporting source files.
--testbundle [(inferred)](#--testbundle) The name of the test bundle using the mocks.
--header (none) Content to add at the beginning of each generated mock file.
--condition (none) Compilation condition to wrap all generated mocks in, e.g. DEBUG.
--diagnostics (none) List of diagnostic generator warnings to enable.
--prune stub The pruning method to use on unreferenced types.
Flag Description
--only-protocols Only generate mocks for protocols.
--disable-module-import Omit @testable import <module> from generated mocks.
--disable-swiftlint Disable all SwiftLint rules in generated mocks.
--disable-cache Ignore cached mock information stored on disk.
--disable-relaxed-linking Only search explicitly imported modules.

Install

Configure a test target to use mocks.

mockingbird install

Option Default Value Description
--target (required) The name of a test target to configure.
--sources (required) List of target names to generate mocks for.
--project [(inferred)](#--project) Path to an .xcodeproj file or a JSON project description.
--srcroot [(inferred)](#--srcroot) The directory containing your project’s source files.
--outputs [(inferred)](#--outputs) List of mock output file paths for each target.
--support [(inferred)](#--support) The directory containing supporting source files.
--header (none) Content to add at the beginning of each generated mock file.
--condition (none) Compilation condition to wrap all generated mocks in, e.g. DEBUG.
--diagnostics (none) List of diagnostic generator warnings to enable.
--loglevel (none) The log level to use when generating mocks, quiet or verbose.
--prune stub The pruning method to use on unreferenced types.
Flag Description
--preserve-existing Don’t overwrite previously installed configurations.
--asynchronous Generate mocks asynchronously in the background when building.
--only-protocols Only generate mocks for protocols.
--disable-swiftlint Disable all SwiftLint rules in generated mocks.
--disable-cache Ignore cached mock information stored on disk.
--disable-relaxed-linking Only search explicitly imported modules.

Uninstall

Remove Mockingbird from a test target.

mockingbird uninstall

Option Default Value Description
--targets (required) List of target names to uninstall the Run Script Phase.
--project [(inferred)](#--project) Your project’s .xcodeproj file.
--srcroot [(inferred)](#--srcroot) The directory containing your project’s source files.

Download

Download and unpack a compatible asset bundle. Bundles will never overwrite existing files on disk.

mockingbird download <asset>

Asset Description
starter-pack Starter supporting source files.

Global Options

Flag Description
--verbose Log all errors, warnings, and debug messages.
--quiet Only log error messages.

Inferred Paths

--project

Mockingbird first checks the environment variable PROJECT_FILE_PATH set by the Xcode build context and then performs a shallow search of the current working directory for an .xcodeproj file. If multiple .xcodeproj files exist then you must explicitly provide a project file path.

--srcroot

Mockingbird checks the environment variables SRCROOT and SOURCE_ROOT set by the Xcode build context and then falls back to the directory containing the .xcodeproj project file. Note that source root is ignored when using JSON project descriptions.

--outputs

By Mockingbird generates mocks into the directory $(SRCROOT)/MockingbirdMocks with the file name $(PRODUCT_MODULE_NAME)Mocks.generated.swift.

--support

Mockingbird recursively looks for supporting source files in the directory $(SRCROOT)/MockingbirdSupport.

--testbundle

Mockingbird checks the environment variables TARGET_NAME and TARGETNAME set by the Xcode build context and verifies that it refers to a valid Swift unit test target. The test bundle option must be set when using JSON project descriptions in order to enable thunk stubs.

Additional Resources

Examples and Tutorials

Help and Documentation


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the Mockingbird README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.