Programming language: Swift
License: Apache License 2.0
Tags: Events    
Latest version: v0.2.0

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SwiftUI-compatible framework for building browser apps with WebAssembly

CI status

At the moment Tokamak implements a very basic subset of SwiftUI. Its DOM renderer supports a few view types and modifiers (you can check the current list in [the progress document](docs/progress.md)), and a new HTML view for constructing arbitrary HTML. The long-term goal of Tokamak is to implement as much of SwiftUI API as possible and to provide a few more helpful additions that simplify HTML and CSS interactions.

If there's some SwiftUI API that's missing but you'd like to use it, please review the existing issues and PRs to get more details about the current status, or create a new issue to let us prioritize the development based on the demand. We also try to make the development of views and modifiers easier (with the help from the HTML view, see the example below), so pull requests are very welcome! Don't forget to check the "Contributing" section first.

If you'd like to participate in the growing SwiftWasm community, you're also very welcome to join the #webassembly channel in the SwiftPM Slack.

Getting started

Tokamak relies on carton as a primary build tool. Please follow installation instructions for carton first.

After carton is successfully installed, type carton dev --product TokamakDemo in the root directory of the cloned Tokamak repository. This will build the demo project and its dependencies and launch a development HTTP server. You can then open in your browser to interact with the demo.

Example code

Tokamak API attempts to resemble SwiftUI API as much as possible. The main difference is that you use import TokamakShim instead of import SwiftUI in your files. The former makes your views compatible with Apple platforms, as well as platforms supported by Tokamak (currently only WebAssembly/WASI with more coming in the future):

import TokamakShim

struct Counter: View {
  @State var count: Int
  let limit: Int

  var body: some View {
    if count < limit {
      VStack {
        Button("Increment") { count += 1 }
      .onAppear { print("Counter.VStack onAppear") }
      .onDisappear { print("Counter.VStack onDisappear") }
    } else {
      VStack { Text("Limit exceeded") }

You can then render your view in any DOM node captured with JavaScriptKit, just pass it as an argument to the DOMRenderer initializer together with your view:

import JavaScriptKit
import TokamakDOM

let document = JSObjectRef.global.document.object!

let divElement = document.createElement!("div").object!
let renderer = DOMRenderer(Counter(count: 5, limit: 15), divElement)

let body = document.body.object!
_ = body.appendChild!(divElement)

Arbitrary HTML

With the HTML view you can also render any HTML you want, including inline SVG:

struct SVGCircle: View {
  var body: some View {
    HTML("svg", ["width": "100", "height": "100"]) {
      HTML("circle", [
        "cx": "50", "cy": "50", "r": "40",
        "stroke": "green", "stroke-width": "4", "fill": "yellow",

Arbitrary styles and scripts

While JavaScriptKit is a great option for occasional interactions with JavaScript, sometimes you need to inject arbitrary scripts or styles, which can be done through direct DOM access:

_ = document.head.object!.insertAdjacentHTML!("beforeend", #"""
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/moment.js/2.27.0/moment.min.js"></script>
_ = document.head.object!.insertAdjacentHTML!("beforeend", #"""

This way both Semantic UI styles and moment.js localized date formatting (or any arbitrary style/script/font added that way) are available in your app.


Modular structure

Tokamak is built with modularity in mind, providing a cross-platform TokamakCore module and separate modules for platform-specific renderers. Currently, the only available renderer module is TokamakDOM, but we intend to provide other renderers in the future, such as TokamakHTML for static websites and server-side rendering. Tokamak users only need to import a renderer module they would like to use, while TokamakCore is hidden as an "internal" Tokamak package target. Unfortunately, Swift does not allow us to specify that certain symbols in TokamakCore are private to a package, but they need to stay public for renderer modules to get access to them. Thus, the current workaround is to mark those symbols with underscores in their names to indicate this. It can be formulated as these "rules":

  1. If a symbol is restricted to a module and has no public access control, no need for an underscore.
  2. If a symbol is part of a public renderer module API (e.g. TokamakDOM), no need for an underscore, users may use those symbols directly, and it is re-exported from TokamakCore by the renderer module via public typealias.
  3. If a function or a type have public on them only by necessity to make them available in TokamakDOM, but unavailable to users (or not intended for public use), underscore is needed to indicate that.

The benefit of separate modules is that they allow us to provide separate renderers for different platforms. Users can pick and choose what they want to use, e.g. purely static websites would use only TokamakHTML, single-page apps would use TokamakDOM, maybe in conjuction with TokamakHTML for pre-rendering. As we'd like to try to implement a native renderer for Android at some point, probably in a separate TokamakAndroid module, Android apps would use TokamakAndroid with no need to be aware of any of the web modules.


If this library saved you any amount of time or money, please consider sponsoring the work of its maintainer. While some of the sponsorship tiers give you priority support or even consulting time, any amount is appreciated and helps in maintaining the project.

Coding Style

This project uses SwiftFormat and SwiftLint to enforce formatting and coding style. We encourage you to run SwiftFormat within a local clone of the repository in whatever way works best for you either manually or automatically via an Xcode extension, build phase or git pre-commit hook etc.

To guarantee that these tools run before you commit your changes on macOS, you're encouraged to run this once to set up the pre-commit hook:

brew bundle # installs SwiftLint, SwiftFormat and pre-commit
pre-commit install # installs pre-commit hook to run checks before you commit

Refer to the pre-commit documentation page for more details and installation instructions for other platforms.

SwiftFormat and SwiftLint also run on CI for every PR and thus a CI build can fail with inconsistent formatting or style. We require CI builds to pass for all PRs before merging.

Code of Conduct

This project adheres to the Contributor Covenant Code of Conduct. By participating, you are expected to uphold this code. Please report unacceptable behavior to [email protected].


Carson Katri, Jed Fox, Max Desiatov.


  • Thanks to the Swift community for building one of the best programming languages available!
  • Thanks to everyone who developed React with its reconciler/renderer architecture that inspired Tokamak in the first place.
  • Thanks to the designers of the SwiftUI API who showed us how to write UI apps in Swift declaratively (arguably even in a better way than React did).
  • Thanks to SwiftWebUI for reverse-engineering some of the bits of SwiftUI and kickstarting the front-end Swift ecosystem for the web.
  • Thanks to Render, ReSwift, Katana UI and Komponents for inspiration!

SwiftUI is a trademark owned by Apple Inc. Software maintained as a part of the Tokamak project is not affiliated with Apple Inc.


Tokamak is available under the Apache 2.0 license. Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the LICENSE file for more info.

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the Tokamak README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.